A single loading unit (such as a container) is used to convey goods utilizing a variety of modes of transportation, including road, rail, water, and air. It can maximize each mode of transportation’s respective advantages in terms of flexibility, efficiency, cost, and environmental performance. Over € 1.1 billion in total EU money was pledged to projects promoting intermodality between 2014 and 2020.

At the EU level, the Commission set goals for increased use of inland waterways and rail. The goals were unattainable, and the member states’ own goals weren’t in line with them. Ultimately, we came to the conclusion that legislative and infrastructure impediments prevent intermodal freight transportation from competing on an equal footing with road transportation. We provided several ideas to improve the efficiency of the EU’s assistance in the area.